Why The Minimum Wage Does Not Make Moral Sense: Unemployment, Not Low Wage Rate, Causes Most Poverty
In response to his new $15 minimum wage in California, Governor Jerry Brown said:
Economically, minimum wages may not make sense. But morally, socially, and politically they make every sense because it binds the community together to make sure parents can take care of their kids.
Let me explain as briefly as I can why this minimum wage increase is immoral. We will use data from the chart below which was cribbed from Mark Perry in this post.
The average wage of people who work in the poorest 20% in the US is already near $15 ($28,417 divided by 2000 full time hours - $14.20 per hour). This is not that much lower than the hourly earnings of those in the second poorest or even the middle quintiles. So why are they poor? The biggest different is that while only 16% of the middle quintile households had no one who worked, and 31.5% of the second poorest quintile had no one who worked, of the poorest 20% of households a whopping 63% had no one who worked. Only 16.1% of poor adults had a full time job.
The reason for poverty, then, is not primarily one of rate, it is one of achieving full time employment. Many of these folks have limited education, few job skills, little or no work experience, and can have poor language skills. And California has just increased the cost of giving these folks a job by 50%. The poor will be worse off, as not only will more of them miss out on the monetary benefits of employment, but also the non-monetary ones (building a work history, learning basic skills, etc.)
Past studies have shown that most of the benefit of the minimum wage goes to non-poor households (ie second and third earners in middle class homes). The targets Jerry Brown speaks of, parents earning the minimum wage to take care of families, are perhaps only 1/8 of minimum wage earners.
MaCurdy found that less than 40% of wage increases [from a minimum wage hike] went to people earning less than twice the poverty line, and among that group, about third of them are trying to raise a family on the minimum wage.
Of course, the price of a lot of stuff poor people have to buy in California is about to go up. We are going to have to raise our campground rates by 20-25% to offset the labor cost increase. But that is another story.